Fleshy fruits are juicy and rich in water when ripe:

...such as the berries, which contain several seeds..:

...or the drupes, which contain a single seed surrounded by a woody kernel...

The fruits of raspberries, blackberries, and mulberries consist of many small drupes crowded together:

Botanists call false fruits those in which the fleshy part does not derive from the carpels, but from a swelling of the receptacle. Typical examples are, besides pears and apples,..:

...the false fruits of Roses...

...and those of strawberries...

Very peculiar fleshy fruits are those of Citrus species, in which water is contained inside modified hairs:


Gymnosperms do not have veritable fruits, but in some of them the seeds are surrounded by more or less fleshy structures, e.g. in Taxus and in Juniperus. These cases are subsumed here under the 'fleshy fruit' category.

Here we show some examples of dry fruits, such as the capsules, which are formed by several modified leaves (called 'carpels') that are fused together...

...the siliculae of some species of the Mustard family (Brassicaceae), which have 2 carpels only and and are ca. as long as wide...

...the siliquae, also typical of the Mustard family, which have 2 carpels as well but are much longer than wide...:

...the legumes of the Fabaceae family, which have 1 carpel only and open in 2 halves...

..and which, in some genera such as Medicago can be strongly twisted to spirally arranged...:

...the achenes , dry fruits with 1 carpel only and with a single seed, such as those of Ranunculus..:

...those of Geranium and Erodium, that have a long beak...:

...those of the genus Rumex...

...and of the Asteraceae family..:

...the diachenes of the Apiaceae family...



...and the of the Lamiaceae family..:

Examples of dry fruits of woody plants are the winged samaras of Ostrya and Carpinus..:

...or those of the genus Acer, which are arranged in pairs...

...and the acorns of oaks.


The cones of Gymnosperms are not veritable fruits, but those with woody scales are here subsumed under the 'dry fruits' category: