Hypocenomyce scalaris (Ach.) M. Choisy

Bull. Mens. Soc. Linn. Lyon, 20: 133, 1951. Basionym: Lichen scalaris Ach. - K. Vetensk.-Akad. Nya Handl., 16: 127, 1795.
Synonyms: Biatora ostreata (Hoffm.) Fr.; Lecidea ostreata (Hoffm.) Schaer.; Lecidea scalaris (Ach.) Ach.; Psora ostreata Hoffm.; Psora scalaris (Ach.) Hook.
Distribution: N - VG, Frl, Ven (Nascimbene & Caniglia 1997, 2000b, 2002c, 2003c, Caniglia & al. 1999, Nascimbene & al. 2006e, Nascimbene 2008c, Brackel 2013), TAA (Lecid. Exs. 262: Hertel 1992b, Nascimbene & Caniglia 2000b, 2002c, Caniglia & al. 2002, Nascimbene 2005b, 2006b, 2006c, 2008b, 2013, 2014, 2014c, Nascimbene & al. 2005, 2006, 2006e, 2007b, 2008c, 2014, Zarabska & al. 2009, Brackel 2013, Nascimbene & Marini 2015, Nimis & al. 2015), Lomb (Alessio & al. 1995, Valcuvia & al. 2003, Dalle Vedove & al. 2004, Nascimbene & al. 2006e, Furlanetto 2010, Gheza & al. 2015), Piem (Caniglia & al. 1992, Isocrono & al. 2004, 2007, Isocrono & Piervittori 2008, Furlanetto 2010, Matteucci & al. 2010), VA (Piervittori & Maffei 1996, Piervittori & Isocrono 1999, Valcuvia & al. 2000b, Matteucci & al. 2008, 2008c, Isocrono & al. 2008, Loppi 2014), Emil (Nimis & al. 1996, Tretiach & al. 2008). Lig (Giordani & al. 2009, Giordani & Incerti 2008). C - Tosc (Benesperi 2007, 2011, Brackel 2015), Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Umb (Ravera 1998, Ravera & al. 2006), Laz (Massari & Ravera 2002), Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Sar (Zedda 1995, Zedda & Sipman 2001). S - Bas (Potenza 2006, Potenza & Fascetti 2012), Cal (Puntillo 1996, Brackel & Puntillo 2016), Si (Brackel 2008c).
Description: Thallus of usually crowded, imbricate, geotropically oriented squamules covering large patches. Squamules up to 1.2(-2.0) mm diam., flat to usually convex, grey-green to brown, dull, with marginal, more or less labriform soralia. Lower surface pale, largely sorediate. Upper cortex up to 40 µm thick, of thin-walled hyphae. Apothecia very rare, up to 1.5 (-2.5) mm across, marginal, with a black, often bluish-white pruinose disc, and an entire or flexuose proper margin of loosely conglutinated hyphae, containing crystals (C+ red). Epithecium olivaceous green, containing crystals (C+ red), N+ violet; paraphyses without pigment cap; hymenium colourless; hypothecium light to dark brown. Asci usually remaining immature, clavate to cylindrical, Biatora-type. Ascospores 1-celled, hyaline, narrowly ellipsoid to fusiform, 7-8 x 3-4 µm. Pycnidia sessile, black, marginal or laminal. Conidia bacilliform, 5-7.5 x c. 1 µm. Photobiont chlorococcoid. Spot tests: thallus K-, C+ red, KC+ red, P-; medulla and soralia UV+ white. Chemistry: lecanoric acid and unidentified substances.
Note: a temperate to boreal-montane, circumpolar lichen found on acid bark, especially of conifers, but also on Castanea and on lignum, incl. charred wood; much more common in northern Italy than in the mountains of southern Italy.
Growth form: Squamulose
Photobiont: green algae other than Trentepohlia
Reproductive strategy: mainly asexual, by soredia, or soredia-like structures (e.g. blastidia)

Commonnes-rarity: (info)

Alpine belt: absent
Subalpine belt: common
Oromediterranean belt: absent
Montane belt: rather rare
Submediterranean belt: very rare
Padanian area: absent
Humid submediterranean belt: very rare
Humid mediterranean belt: absent
Dry mediterranean belt: absent


pH of the substrata:

(info)

1

2

3

4

5

Solar irradiation:

(info)

1

2

3

4

5

Aridity:

(info)

1

2

3

4

5

Eutrophication:

(info)

1

2

3

4

5

Poleotolerance:

(info)

0

1

2

3

Altitudinal distribution:

(info)

1

2

3

4

5




Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[19036], Australia, Australian Capital Territory, Canberra Nature Park, Bruce Ridge, 35°515' S, 149°05' E, 640 m, on trunk of Eucalyptus macrorhyncha in dry Eucalyptus woodland. Leg. J.A. Elix (27484), 26.01.1991. LICH. AUSTRALASICI EXS. 232.


P.L. Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (9088)
2001/11/25


P.L. Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (9088)
2001/11/25
detail of apothecia


P.L. Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (34865)
2002/02/16


Andres Saag; Owner: University of Tartu


Triin Aimla; Owner: University of Tartu


P.L.Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (23590)
2008.03.06


P.L.Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (26523)
2008.03.06


Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[19036], Australia, Australian Capital Territory, Canberra Nature Park, Bruce Ridge, 35°515' S, 149°05' E, 640 m, on trunk of Eucalyptus macrorhyncha in dry Eucalyptus woodland. Leg. J.A. Elix (27484), 26.01.1991. LICH. AUSTRALASICI EXS. 232.


Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[19036], Australia, Australian Capital Territory, Canberra Nature Park, Bruce Ridge, 35°515' S, 149°05' E, 640 m, on trunk of Eucalyptus macrorhyncha in dry Eucalyptus woodland. Leg. J.A. Elix (27484), 26.01.1991. LICH. AUSTRALASICI EXS. 232.


Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[19036], Australia, Australian Capital Territory, Canberra Nature Park, Bruce Ridge, 35°515' S, 149°05' E, 640 m, on trunk of Eucalyptus macrorhyncha in dry Eucalyptus woodland. Leg. J.A. Elix (27484), 26.01.1991. LICH. AUSTRALASICI EXS. 232.


P.L.Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (20728)
2008.03.06


Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[19036], Australia, Australian Capital Territory, Canberra Nature Park, Bruce Ridge, 35°515' S, 149°05' E, 640 m, on trunk of Eucalyptus macrorhyncha in dry Eucalyptus woodland. Leg. J.A. Elix (27484), 26.01.1991. LICH. AUSTRALASICI EXS. 232.