Synonyms: Oxneria fulva (Hoffm.) S.Y. Kondr. & Kärnefelt; Xanthoria candelaria f. fulva (Hoffm.) Zahlbr.; Xanthoria fulva (Hoffm.) Poelt & Petut.; Xanthoria ligustica M. Steiner ex Poelt nom. sol.
Distribution: N - VG, Frl, Ven, TAA (Thor & Nascimbene 2007, Nascimbene & al. 2007b, 2014, Zarabska & al. 2009, Nascimbene 2014, Nimis & al. 2015), Lomb, Piem (Matteucci & al. 2013), Lig. C - Laz (Ravera 2006), Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999). S - Bas (Ravera 2014), Cal (Puntillo 1996, Eichenberger 2007, Brackel & Puntillo 2016).
Description: Thallus foliose, dark red-orange, lobed, not forming regular rosettes, but thalli often coalescing to cover large surfaces. Lobes to 2 mm long and 0.7(-1) mm wide, ascending, blastidiate along most of the lower surface, the blastidia 25-30 µm diam.; rhizines or hapters absent or a few at the base of the lobes. Apothecia very rare, lecanorine. Asci 8-spored, clavate, Teloschistes-type. Ascospores 1-septate, polarilocular, hyaline, broadly ellipsoid, with broadly rounded ends, 13.5-17.5 x 8-10.5 µm, the septum 4-6.5 µm thick. Pycnidia common, darker orange than thallus. Conidia baciliform, 3-4.5 x 1-1.2 µm. Photobiont chlorococcoid. Spot tests: upper surface K+ red, C-, KC-, P-. Chemistry: parietin (major), fallacinal (major).
Note: most frequent on isolated deciduous trees along roads in continental Alpine valleys; often confused with X. huculica in the past, and with a similar ecology, but perhaps more xerophytic.
Growth form: Foliose, narrow lobed
Photobiont: green algae other than Trentepohlia
Reproductive strategy: mainly asexual, by soredia, or soredia-like structures (e.g. blastidia)
Subcontinental: restricted to areas with a dry-subcontinental climate (e.g. dry Alpine valleys, parts of Mediterranean Italy)