Xanthomendoza huculica (S.Y. Kondr.) Diederich

Bull. Soc. Nat. Luxemb., 115: 163, 2014. Basionym: Oxneria huculica S.Y. Kondr. - Flora Lishainikiv Ukraïni, 2, 3: 435, 2010.
Synonyms: Xanthoria fallax auct. non (Hepp) Arnold
Distribution: N - VG (Castello 1996), Frl (Badin & Nimis 1996, Castello & Skert 2005, Tretiach & Molaro 2007), Ven (Nimis & al. 1996c, Caniglia & al. 1999, Lazzarin 2000, Nascimbene 2005c, 2008), TAA (Zieger & al. 2003, Nascimbene 2005b, 2006c, 2014, Nascimbene & al. 2007b, 2014, Cristofolini & al. 2008, Zarabska & al. 2009, Brackel 2013, Nimis & al. 2015), Lomb (Rivellini 1994, Arosio & Rinaldi 1995, Valcuvia & Brusoni 1996, Brusoni & al. 1997, Zocchi & al. 1997, Roella 1999, Brusoni & Valcuvia 2000, Casarini & al. 2000, Arosio & al. 2000, 2003, Furlanetto 2010, Brackel 2013, Gheza & al. 2015), Piem (Caniglia & al. 1992, Piervittori & al. 1996b, Arosio & al. 1998, Piervittori 1998, 2003, Clerc & al. 1999, Isocrono & Falletti 1999, Griselli & al. 2000, 2003, Castino 2004, Isocrono & al. 2004, 2005b, 2007, Isocrono & Piervittori 2008, Furlanetto 2010, Matteucci & al. 2010), VA (Piervittori & Maffei 1996, 2001, Piervittori & Isocrono 1999, Valcuvia & al. 2000b, Piervittori & al. 2001, Matteucci & al. 2008, 2008c, Isocrono & al. 2008), Emil (Bassi 1995, Gasparo & Tretiach 1996, Marconi & al. 2006, Morselli & Regazzi 2006, Cioffi 2009), Lig (Giordani & Incerti 2008). C - Tosc, Marc (Frati & Brunialti 2006), Abr (Olivieri & al. 1997, 1997b, Loppi & al. 1999), Sar (Rizzi & al. 2011). S - Camp, Pugl, Si.
Description: Thallus foliose, orange to orange-yellow, adnate to loosely adnate, lobed, forming regular to irregular, 1-2(-3) cm wide rosettes, individual thalli often coalescing to cover much larger surfaces. Lobes dorsiventral, flattened, 3-5 mm wide, smooth, first with helmet-shaped soralia at the apex of short, inner, appressed lobes, these soon becoming crescent-shaped, so that the soralia appear almost crater-like, the soredia yellow, contrasting with the orange thallus colour. Medulla white; lower surface white to yellow, somewhat wrinkled, with many short, white hapters. Apothecia very rare, 0.5-0.7 mm across, laminal, stipitate, lecanorine, the margin initially smooth but often becoming sorediate. Asci 8-spored, clavate, Teloschistes-type. Ascospores 1-septate, polarilocular, hyaline, ellipsoid, 12-16 x 5-6 µm, the septum: 3-5 µm thick. Pycnidia common, immersed to protruding, darker orange than thallus. Conidia bacilliform. Spot tests: thallus and soredia K+ red, C-, KC-, P-. Chemistry: parietin (major), fallacinal (major), emodin, teloschistin (major) and parietinic acid.
Note: a recently-described epiphytic species differing from X. fallax in the much larger lobes with numerous rhizines, in the narrower spores with shorter septum, and in the ecology (epiphytic versus saxicolous). From a preliminary analysis of the epiphytic samples of X. fallax in TSB, all of them appear to belong to X. huculica. Thus, I have placed here all records of X. fallax from Italy collected on bark. The species seems to be most frequent in areas with a subcontinental climate (dry alpine valleys and eastern side of the Peninsula).
Growth form: Foliose, narrow lobed
Substrata: bark
Photobiont: green algae other than Trentepohlia
Reproductive strategy: mainly asexual, by soredia, or soredia-like structures (e.g. blastidia)
Subcontinental: restricted to areas with a dry-subcontinental climate (e.g. dry Alpine valleys, parts of Mediterranean Italy)

Commonnes-rarity: (info)

Alpine belt: absent
Subalpine belt: absent
Oromediterranean belt: absent
Montane belt: very rare
Submediterranean belt: rather rare
Padanian area: absent
Humid submediterranean belt: extremely rare
Humid mediterranean belt: absent
Dry mediterranean belt: absent


pH of the substrata:

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Solar irradiation:

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Eutrophication:

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Poleotolerance:

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Altitudinal distribution:

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P.L. Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (998)
2001/12/03
detail of soralia


P.L. Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (998)
2001/12/03


Triin Aimla; Owner: University of Tartu


Andrea Moro; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Slovenia, Lipica/Lipizza; altitude: 2
2008.02.21


Andrea Moro; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Slovenia, Lipica/Lipizza; altitude: 2
2008.02.21


Andrea Moro; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Slovenia, Lipica/Lipizza; altitude: 2
2008.02.21


Juri Nascimbene; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Italy, Trentino-Alto Adige, Trento, Villa Welsperg, Centro Visitatori del Parco di Paneveggio; altitude: 1030 m
03.04.2009


Juri Nascimbene; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Italy, Trentino-Alto Adige, Trento, Villa Welsperg, Centro Visitatori del Parco di Paneveggio; altitude: 1030 m
03.04.2009


Juri Nascimbene; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Italy, Trentino-Alto Adige, Trento, Villa Welsperg, Centro Visitatori del Parco di Paneveggio; altitude: 1030 m
03.04.2009


Juri Nascimbene; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Italy, Trentino-Alto Adige, Trento, Villa Welsperg, Centro Visitatori del Parco di Paneveggio; altitude: 1030 m
03.04.2009


P.L. Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Italy, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Trieste, Trieste Karst, Rocca di Monrupino (Rupingrande)
07.07.2016


P.L. Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Italy, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Trieste, Trieste Karst, Rocca di Monrupino (Rupingrande)
07.07.2016


P.L. Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Italy, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Udine, Ampezzo Carnico, 650 m
09.09.2016


P.L. Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Italy, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Udine, Ampezzo Carnico, 650 m
09.09.2016


Pier Luigi Nimis - CC BY-SA 4.0
Herbarium: TSB 998


Pier Luigi Nimis - CC BY-SA 4.0
Herbarium: TSB 998