Chaenotheca trichialis (Ach.) Th. Fr.

N. Acta Reg. Soc. Sci. Upsal., ser. 3, 3: 251, 1860. Basionym: Calicium trichiale Ach. - K. Vetensk.-Akad. Nya Handl.: 283, 1808.
Synonyms: Calicium cinereum auct.; Calicium trichiale var. filiforme Schaer.; Chaenotheca aeruginosa (Turner) A.L. Sm. non auct.; Chaenotheca brunneola var. elassospora (Nyl.) A.L. Sm.; Chaenotheca trichialis var. caerulescens (Turner et Borrer) Vain.; Chaenotheca trichialis var. valida (Schaer.) Zahlbr.; Cyphelium trichiale (Ach.) De Not.; Phacotium trichiale (Ach.) Trevis.
Distribution: N - Frl (Puntillo & Puntillo 2009), Ven (Thor & Nascimbene 2007, Nascimbene & Marini 2007, Nascimbene 2008, 2008c, 2011, Nascimbene & al. 2013b), TAA (Nascimbene 2006b, 2006c, 2008b, 2013, 2014, Nascimbene & al. 2006e, 2007b, 2008c, 2009, 2010, 2014, Stofer 2006, Thor & Nascimbene 2007, Puntillo & Puntillo 2009, Nascimbene & Marini 2015, Nimis & al. 2015), Lomb (Puntillo & Puntillo 2009), Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004, Puntillo & Puntillo 2009), VA (Puntillo & Puntillo 2018), Emil (Benesperi 2009). C - Tosc (Puntillo & Puntillo 2009), Marc (Puntillo & Puntillo 2009), Umb (Genovesi & al. 2001, Ravera & al. 2006, Puntillo & Puntillo 2009), Laz (Puntillo & Puntillo 2009), Mol (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Caporale & al. 2008, Puntillo & Puntillo 2009), Sar (Zedda 2002, Puntillo & Puntillo 2009). S - Camp (Aprile & al. 2003b), Bas (Puntillo & Puntillo 2009, Puntillo & al. 2009, 2012), Cal (Puntillo 1994, 1995, 1996, Puntillo & Puntillo 2009).
Description: Thallus crustose, episubstratic, granular to minutely squamulose, greenish grey to brownish green, very rarely completely endosubstratic. Apothecia long-stalked, pin-like, 1-2 mm high. Stalk slender, shining black, epruinose or with a faint white pruina in upper part, consisting of periclinally arranged, brown hyphae: Capitulum obconical to lenticular, 0.2-0.3 mm across, usually faintly white-pruinose on the lower side, with a well-developed excipulum of periclinally arranged hyphae, continuous with the stalk tissue. Mazaedium well-developed, brown; hypothecium pale brown, obconical, with a convex upper surface. Asci short-cylindrical or irregular, formed in chains, dissolving early, with 1-seriate to irregularly arranged ascospores. Ascospores 1-celled, brown, globose, 3-4 µm wide, with a smooth to irregularly cracked wall. Photobiont chlorococcoid, with rectangular cells (Stichococcus). Spot tests: thallus K-, C-, KC-, P-. Chemistry: thallus with two unidentified substances.
Note: a widespread holarctic species found on acid-barked deciduous trees, conifers and lignum, sometimes even on Quercus ilex, in forests and woodlands; widespread in upland areas throughout the country, but most common in the Alps.
Growth form: Crustose
Photobiont: green algae other than Trentepohlia
Reproductive strategy: mainly sexual
In underhangs rarely wetted by rain

Commonnes-rarity: (info)

Alpine belt: absent
Subalpine belt: rare
Oromediterranean belt: absent
Montane belt: rather rare
Submediterranean belt: extremely rare
Padanian area: absent
Humid submediterranean belt: extremely rare
Humid mediterranean belt: extremely rare
Dry mediterranean belt: absent


pH of the substrata:

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Solar irradiation:

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Aridity:

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Eutrophication:

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Poleotolerance:

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Altitudinal distribution:

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P.L. Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (13263)
2001/12/05