Cladonia deformis (L.) Hoffm.

Deutschl. Fl., 2: 120, 1796. Basionym: Lichen deformis L. - Sp. Pl., 2: 1152, 1753.
Synonyms: Cladonia crenulata (Ach.) Flörke
Distribution: N - Frl (Tretiach & Hafellner 2000), Ven (Nascimbene & Caniglia 1997, 2000b, Caniglia & al. 1999, Nascimbene & al. 2006e, Giovagnoli & Tasinazzo 2014), TAA (Caniglia & al. 2002, Nascimbene & Caniglia 2002c, Nascimbene 2006c, Nascimbene & al. 2006e, 2007b, 2008c, Nimis & al. 2015), Lomb (Rivellini & Valcuvia 1996, Zocchi & al. 1997, Nascimbene & al. 2006e), Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004, 2006, Isocrono & Piervittori 2008), VA (Borlandelli & al. 1996, Piervittori & Isocrono 1997, 1999, Valcuvia 2000), Emil. S - Cal (Puntillo 1996).
Description: Primary thallus squamulose, often ephemeral, the squamules middle-sized, 2-4 mm long, rounded to crenate-lobate, white below, but yellowish brown towards the attachment point, occasionally sorediate. Podetia yellowish green to greenish grey, orange yellow at the necrotic base, corticate only at base, 2-9 cm tall and up to 5 mm thick on the stalk, with narrow, more or less regular, gradually flaring and usually non-perforated cups, more rarely pointed, squamulose especially toward the base, farinose-sorediate in upper part and inside the cups. Apothecia rare, scarlet red, convex, developing at the margins of cups. Asci 8-spored, clavate, thickened at apex, with a K/I+ blue tholus and a K/I+ strongly blue outer gelatinous sheath, Cladonia-type. Ascospores 1-celled, hyaline, ellipsoid. Pycnidia scarlet red, semi-immersed along the margins of cups. Photobiont chlorococcoid. Spot tests: K-, C-, KC+ yellow, P-, UV-. Chemistry: usnic and isousnic acids, zeorin (deposited as needles on the surface of thallus), bellidiflorin, and traces of unknown terpenoids; rhodocladonic acid in apothecia and pycnidia.
Note: a mainly boreal-montane, circumpolar species found on rotting wood and organic soil in upland areas; some records could refer to C. sulphurina.
Growth form: Fruticose

Photobiont: green algae other than Trentepohlia
Reproductive strategy: mainly asexual, by soredia, or soredia-like structures (e.g. blastidia)

Commonnes-rarity: (info)

Alpine belt: very rare
Subalpine belt: common
Oromediterranean belt: extremely rare
Montane belt: very rare
Submediterranean belt: absent
Padanian area: absent
Humid submediterranean belt: absent
Humid mediterranean belt: absent
Dry mediterranean belt: absent


pH of the substrata:

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Solar irradiation:

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Aridity:

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Eutrophication:

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Poleotolerance:

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Altitudinal distribution:

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Einar Timdal - Source: http://nhm2.uio.no/lav/web/index.html - CC BY-NC


P.L. Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (2661)
2001/12/04
detail of cups


Andres Saag; Owner: University of Tartu


Triin Aimla; Owner: University of Tartu


Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[16530], Österreich, nordöstlich von Ischgl beim Silvretta Stausee, ca. 2000 m. Leg. A. Matuschewski 07.2010. Det. Schumm 07.2010


Curtis Randall Björk – CC BY-SA 4.0
British Columbia, Boundary Ranges 2012-09-03 Understory of sub-boreal forest